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Population. Mongolia. Ethnic composition of Mongolia.




Mongolia 2023 population is estimated at 3,447,157 people at mid year and the population density is 4 persons per square mile (1.5 persons per sq. km). However low population density does not mean that this extensive area of open steppes is an uninhabited place. More than half of the population live in rural areas. 27 percent of the total population live in capital city Ulaanbaatar. In 1918, 648,100 people lived in Mongolia. The population of Mongolia reached 772,000 between 1921 and 1950. The population tripled in size from 1950 to 1998. The population density varies considerably by aimags and cities. Some big cities of Mongolia are more densely populated. For instance, density by person per square mile is about 1275 in Darkhan, 369 in Ulaanbaatar and around 2665 in Erdenet. Umnugovi aimag has 63,861 square mile (165.400 area and in 1998, its population was 46,200 and the population density was 0.72 person per square mile. This is the largest aimag, which comprises 10,5 percent of the country's territory, but has the lowest population density. Selenge aimag has the highest population density of 6.7 persons per square mile. Generally, in 1998 population of aimags ranged between 13,100 and 123,600. In Mongolia, the ratio of men and women is about 100.


The ethnic composition of Mongolia is fairly homogeneous. In 1989, Khalkha Mongols constituted 79 percent of the population, Kazakhs 5.9 percent and other groups constituted the rest. At present, there are 15 nationalities in Mongolia, represented by the following ethnic groups: Khalkha, Durvud, Bayad, Buriat, Dariganga, Zakhchin, Uriankhai, Darkhad, Torguud, Uuld, Khoton, Myangad, Barga, Uzemchin and Kazakh. The percentage of Khalkha Mongols in the ethnic composition increased and the percentage of people of Russian and Chinese ancestry decreased. In recent years the emigration of about 60,000 Kazakhs to Kazakhstan has affected the percentage of Kazakhs in the overall population of Mongolia.


In 1956, the urban population constituted 21.6 percent and it increased to 54.6 percent in 1994. The center of urbanization is Ulaanbaatar City, where population growth is particularly high. Migration is especially intensive from the western parts of the country to the center. The Government will have to pay closer attention to the emigration issues if the trend towards the increase is remaining in the future.


It is estimated that the percentage of and the number of children in the population will decrease while the population of working age will increase. Also the number of the elderly is expected to gradually increase. According to rough estimates, Mongolian population will increase to reach 3.4 million in 2019 and the percentage of children of the age below 14 will decline to 27 percent. This also indicates that the population of working age will rise to 10 percent. There was a rapid growth in the birth rate in the 1960s, and the highest ever recorded was from 1970-1980. Since the 1980s the increase has been stable. However, the birthrate has been decreasing since 1990s and its ratio was 20.9 in 1998, which is higher than the world's average. The death rate is decreasing and in recent years it has been 7.2 which is lower than the world's average rate.

  • Facts about Mongolia 2000. by Da. Gandbold. ADMOND Co.Ltd.,Mongolia.
  • Mongolia. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.
Photo. Mongolian children. Ulaanbaatar.

Photo. Mongolian children. Ulaanbaatar.

Photo. Mongolian family. The city of Darkhan.

Photo. Mongolian family. The city of Darkhan.

Photo. Mongolian wedding. Ulaanbaatar.

Photo. Mongolian wedding. Ulaanbaatar.

Photo. Mongolian family.

Photo. Mongolian family.



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