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Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.




Архангай аймак Баян-Хонгор аймак. Баян-Улгий аймак. Булган аймак. Дорнод аймак. Дорноговь аймак. Дундговь аймак. Говь-Алтай аймак. Хэнтий аймак. Ховд аймак. Хувсгул аймак. Селенге аймак. Сухэбатор аймак. Тувь аймак. Умнговь аймак. Увс аймак. Увурхангай аймак. Завхан аймак.

Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Övörkhangai Province in Mongolia. The sum population was 13,828 (1994), 13,964 (2000), and 14,765 (2017). The population of Kharkhorin town itself was 14,765 in 2017 and covered an area of 20.5 km2. Kharkhorin is located at the lower end of the upper valley of the Orkhon River which is included within UNESCO's World Heritage Site Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape. The location marks the easternmost foothills of the Khangai Mountains, where they meet the rolling steppe of central Mongolia.

Nearby are the ruins of the ancient town of Karakorum (also known as Kharkhorum or Qara Qorum) which, for a short time, served as the capital of the Mongol Empire under Ogedei Khan. Another Kharkhorin landmark is Erdene Zuu monastery and its famous phallic rock. The important Paleolithic archaeological site of Moiltyn-am is located near the bridge over the Orkhon River, just west of the settlement. A modern resort is south of Kharkhorin at Khujirt on the Orkhon River.

Kharkhorin's principal sources of income are tourism and agriculture. Water from the Orkhon River serves to irrigate crops on the large plain east of the town. The Kharkhorin Airport (KHR/ZMHH) has one unpaved runway and is served by regular flights from and to Mongolia's capital, Ulan Bator.

The people who study world history, know about Kharkhorin city. In 1206 Chinggis khaan established the Mongolian Great Empire and built the capital city of Kharkhorin. Researchers say Orkhon Valley is Mongolian geographic center and gene, and that Mongolian ancient tribes used to unite to focus to get the strength. "Kharkhorin" is the Uighur word meaning "dark brown dirt soil." Kharkhorin is surrounded by big walls, four palaces of Tumen amgalant had a green tile floor, a large tree sculpted of silver and other precious metals rose up from the middle of the courtyard and loomed over the palace, with the branches of the tree extended into the building. Silver fruit hung from the limbs and it had four golden serpents braided around the trunk, while within the top of the tree was placed a trumpet angel, all is performing for the emperor's pleasure.
The four corners of the gate had a trading market, shining monuments on the four turtle are in four corners, Christianity, Islamic, Buddhist religion, 12 Buddhist temples were settled and artisan districts and traders were to the streets of major cities. In 1380, 1466 the Ming state attacked the city, since then it failed to recover but so far the glory of the name is not forgotten. In 1996, Mongolian and Japanese scientists did a detailed topographic and concluded that there is 100 years of research left. Even though Kharkhorin was the capital city of Mongolia, it was not the center that the kings used to make political policy. The captured people are Roman Pontifical Plano Carpini in 1246, Wilgelm De Rubruk in 1253, Marco Polo who came to Kharkhorin near the Kubilai khaan in 1271, made the Kharkhorin city famous in the world.

Every year 30,000 tourists visit Kharkhorin city to imagine ancient capital city as exist now. Visiting Kharkhorin is an amazing experience to feel an old world capital. You will wonder what is left and what is still exist.

  • The ruins of the ancient capital of Mongolia, Karakorum, the legendary city of Genghis Khan, was founded in 1220 in the Orkhon Valley, at the crossroads of the Silk Road. It was from there that the Mongol Empire governed, until Khubilai Khaan moved it to Beijing. The symbolic ruins of Kharakhorum (kharkhorin), monumental walls (400 m of length) with 108 stupas, surround the first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia Erdene Zuu Monastery, built in 1586. In 1792, it housed 62 temples and 10,000 lamas; since 1990, it has become an active monastery again. Turtles carved from the stone marked the boundaries of the complex. Nearby, Turkish monuments and rock inscriptions erected in 8-9th centuries in memory of outstanding fighters for independence.
  • Erdene Zuu (Hundred Treasures) was the first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. The monastery was started in 1586 by Abtai Khaan, but wasn't entirely finished until about 300 years later. It had between 60 and 100 temples, about 300 gers were set up inside the walls and, at its height, up to 1000 monks were in residence.
  • The Kharakhorum Museum (Mongolian: ) is a museum in Kharkhorin, Mongolia. The museum is dedicated to exhibiting artifacts from Mongolian history.
  • Take in the view from Monument of the Great Mongolian Empire
  • Turtle Rocks. Outside the monastery walls are two 'turtle rocks'. Four of these sculptures once marked the boundaries of ancient Karakorum, acting as protectors of the city (turtles are considered symbols of eternity). The turtles originally had an inscribed stone stele mounted vertically on their back.

    One is easy to find: just walk out of the northern gate of the monastery and follow the path north-west for about 300m. Often, an impromptu souvenir market is set up here next to the turtle rock. You'll need a guide or directions to find the other turtle rock.

  • Phallic Rock. If you have some time, it is worth looking for the bizarre 'phallic rock', which points erotically to something interestingly called a 'vaginal slope'. It is surrounded by a stone fence, hidden up a small valley, and visible from the main road to Ulaanbaator, about 1km from Kharkhorin. It's a 15-minute walk from Erdene Zuu Khiid. Legend has it that the rock was placed here in an attempt to stop frisky monks, filled with lust by the shapely slope, from fraternising with the local women.
  • Shankh Monastery, once known as the West Monastery, is the only one of the region's monasteries other than Erdene Zuu to have survived. Shankh was renowned because of its connections with the great Zanabazar and is said to have once housed Chinggis Khaan's black military banner. At one time the monastery housed over 1500 monks. As elsewhere, the monastery was closed in 1937, temples were burnt. During the years of repression, five monks secretly kept the monastery alive in a local ger at great risk to themselves. One of these monks reopened the monastery in 1990. It is currently trying to raise funds to build a stupa in his honour. Of the three main buildings only the central main temple has been restored.
  • Khar Balgas. The ruined citadel of Khar Balgas (Kara Balgasun in Turkic) is in Khotont sum Arkhangai aimag on the banks of the Orkhon Gol. The city was founded in AD 751 as the capital of the Uighur khanate, which ruled Mongolia from 745-854.
    There's not much to see except the outer walls (with gates in the North and South), a Buddhist stupa and the ruler's kagan, or castle, in the south-west corner. From the walls you can see the rows of stupas on either side of the walls and the remains of irrigated fields in the surrounding countryside.
  • Kultegin Monument. When Chinggis Khaan decided to move his capital to Kharakhorum, he was well aware that the region had already been capital to successive nomad empires. About 20km north-east of Khar Balgas (as the crow flies) lies the remainder of yet another of these pre-Mongol empires, the Turkic khaganate. All that's left of the khaganate is the 3m-high inscribed monument of Kultegin (684-731), the khagan (ruler) himself. The monument was raised in AD 732 and is inscribed in Runic and Chinese script. You can see a copy of the stele in the entrance of the National Museum of Mongolian History.
    Just over 1km away is another monument to Bilge Khagan (683-734), younger brother of Kultegin. Ten years after the death of Bilge the Turkic khaganate was overrun by the Uighurs.
Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.

Photo. Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ) is a town and sum (district) center in Uvurkhangai Province in Mongolia.



- Uvurkhangai aimag.

- Uvurkhangai aimag map.

- Arvaikheer.

- Kharkhorin (Mongolian: ).

- Erdene Zuu monastery.

- Karakorum.
 The ruins of the ancient capital of Mongolia.

- Kharakhorum Museum.

- Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape.

- Orkhon river.

- Orkhon Waterfall (Ulaan Tsutgalan).

- Deer stone monuments and square
 graves of Temeen Chuluu.

- Tuvkhun monastery.

- Shankh Monastery.

- Arvaikheer. Pages of the pictures album.


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